Waterboarding: two questions for Michael Hayden about three “high-value” detainees now in Guantánamo


The media is buzzing with the news that Michael Hayden, the director of the CIA, admitted in an open session of Congress yesterday that waterboarding –- a long-reviled torture technique, which produces the perception of drowning –- was used on three “high-value” al-Qaeda suspects in CIA custody in 2002 and 2003. The three men –- Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Abu Zubaydah and Abdul Rahim al-Nashiri –- are discussed in my book The Guantánamo Files: The Stories of the 774 Detainees in America’s Illegal Prison.

Abu Zubaydah, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Abdul Rahim al-Nashiri

The three “high-value” detainees whom Michael Hayden admitted were waterboarded by the CIA. From L to R: Abu Zubaydah, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Abdul Rahim al-Nashiri.

My questions for Mr. Hayden are simple. Firstly, if it’s true that only three detainees were subjected to waterboarding, then why did a number of “former and current intelligence officers and supervisors” tell ABC News in November 2005 that “a dozen top al-Qaeda targets incarcerated in isolation at secret locations on military bases in regions from Asia to Eastern Europe” were subjected to six “Enhanced Interrogation Techniques,” instituted in mid-March 2002?

According to the ABC News account, the six techniques used by the CIA on the “dozen top al-Qaeda targets” were “The Attention Grab,” “Attention Slap,” “The Belly Slap” and three other techniques that are particularly worrying: “Long Time Standing,” “The Cold Cell,” and, of course, “Waterboarding.”

“Long Time Standing” was described as “among the most effective [techniques],” in which prisoners “are forced to stand, handcuffed and with their feet shackled to an eye bolt in the floor for more than 40 hours.” The ABC News report added, “Exhaustion and sleep deprivation are effective in yielding confessions.” In “The Cold Cell,” the prisoner “is left to stand naked in a cell kept near 50 degrees. Throughout the time in the cell the prisoner is doused with cold water.”

The description of “Waterboarding” was as follows: “The prisoner is bound to an inclined board, feet raised and head slightly below the feet. Cellophane is wrapped over the prisoner’s face and water is poured over him. Unavoidably, the gag reflex kicks in and a terrifying fear of drowning leads to almost instant pleas to bring the treatment to a halt.”

The article proceeded with recollections of the waterboarding of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who apparently “won the admiration of interrogators when he was able to last between two and two-and-a-half minutes before begging to confess” (the interrogators tried it on themselves, but “only lasted an average of 14 seconds before caving in”).

According to the ABC News report, one other detainee who was waterboarded was Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, the director of the Khaldan training camp in Afghanistan, who was captured in November 2001. His current whereabouts are unknown, although there are suspicions that he was finally delivered to the Libyan government. Having slipped off the radar, the government clearly does not want his case revived, not only because it may have to explain what has happened to him, but also because, as a result of the application of “Enhanced Interrogation Techniques,” al-Libi claimed that Saddam Hussein had offered to train two al-Qaeda operatives in the use of chemical and biological weapons.

Al-Libi’s “confession” led to President Bush declaring, in October 2002, “Iraq has trained al-Qaeda members in bomb making and poisons and gases,” and his claims were, notoriously, included in Colin Powell’s speech to the UN Security Council on February 5, 2003. The claims were of course, groundless, and were recanted by al-Libi in January 2004, but it took Dan Cloonan, a veteran FBI interrogator, who was resolutely opposed to the use of torture, to explain why they should never have been believed in the first place. Cloonan told Jane Mayer, “It was ridiculous for interrogators to think Libi would have known anything about Iraq … The reason they got bad information is that they beat it out of him. You never get good information from someone that way.”

My second question for Mr. Hayden concerns an allegation made by Murat Kurnaz, the German detainee who was released from Guantánamo in August 2006. In an article in the Washington Spectator last July, focusing on Kurnaz’s story, as described in his book Fünf Jahre Meines Lebens: Ein Bericht Aus Guantánamo (Five Years Of My Life: A Report From Guantánamo), the following passage came after Kurnaz’s recollections of being hung by his wrists for “hours and days,” interrupted only by a doctor who came to “check his vital signs to determine if he could withstand more enhanced interrogation,” and his recollections of seeing, in the neighboring cell, another detainee who had died as a result of this ordeal:

“Kurnaz said he was also subjected to waterboarding and electric shock. And that beatings were routine and constant. He theorizes that much of the torture was a result of the failure of the American soldiers and agents to capture any real terrorists in the initial sweeps. (He was told that he was sold to the Americans for $3,000 by Pakistani police, who identified him as a terrorist). ‘They didn’t have any big fish. And they thought that by torture they could get one of us to say something. “I know Osama” or something like that. Then they could say they had a big fish.’”

In light of the comments made by CIA sources in November 2005, and by Murat Kurnaz in his book, I can only wonder how it’s feasible for Mr. Hayden to assert that the use of waterboarding was restricted to three of the 14 “high-value” detainees who were transferred to Guantánamo in September 2006, and, by extension, to claim that waterboarding was not used elsewhere in the “War on Terror” prisons; specifically, as Murat Kurnaz alleged, in one of the US prisons in Afghanistan, which, with Guantánamo, provided the template for the well-chronicled riot of torture and abuse that later migrated to Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq.

Andy Worthington is the author of The Guantánamo Files: The Stories of the 774 Detainees in America’s Illegal Prison (published by Pluto Press, distributed by Macmillan in the US, and available from Amazon — click on the following for the US and the UK). To receive new articles in your inbox, please subscribe to my RSS feed, and see here for my definitive Guantánamo prisoner list, published in March 2009.

As published on the Huffington Post, AlterNet, Antiwar.com and CounterPunch.

For a sequence of articles dealing with the use of torture by the CIA, on “high-value detainees,” and in the secret prisons, see: Guantánamo’s tangled web: Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Majid Khan, dubious US convictions, and a dying man (July 2007), Jane Mayer on the CIA’s “black sites,” condemnation by the Red Cross, and Guantánamo’s “high-value” detainees (including Khalid Sheikh Mohammed) (August 2007), Six in Guantánamo Charged with 9/11 Murders: Why Now? And What About the Torture? (February 2008), The Insignificance and Insanity of Abu Zubaydah: Ex-Guantánamo Prisoner Confirms FBI’s Doubts (April 2008), Guantánamo Trials: Another Torture Victim Charged (Abdul Rahim al-Nashiri, July 2008), Secret Prison on Diego Garcia Confirmed: Six “High-Value” Guantánamo Prisoners Held, Plus “Ghost Prisoner” Mustafa Setmariam Nasar (August 2008), Will the Bush administration be held accountable for war crimes? (December 2008), The Ten Lies of Dick Cheney (Part One) and The Ten Lies of Dick Cheney (Part Two) (December 2008), Prosecuting the Bush Administration’s Torturers (March 2009), Abu Zubaydah: The Futility Of Torture and A Trail of Broken Lives (March 2009), Ten Terrible Truths About The CIA Torture Memos (Part One), Ten Terrible Truths About The CIA Torture Memos (Part Two), 9/11 Commission Director Philip Zelikow Condemns Bush Torture Program, Who Authorized The Torture of Abu Zubaydah?, CIA Torture Began In Afghanistan 8 Months before DoJ Approval, Even In Cheney’s Bleak World, The Al-Qaeda-Iraq Torture Story Is A New Low (all April 2009), Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi Has Died In A Libyan Prison, Dick Cheney And The Death Of Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, The “Suicide” Of Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi: Why The Media Silence?, Two Experts Cast Doubt On Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi’s “Suicide”, Lawrence Wilkerson Nails Cheney On Use Of Torture To Invade Iraq, In the Guardian: Death in Libya, betrayal by the West (in the Guardian here) (all May 2009), Lawrence Wilkerson Nails Cheney’s Iraq Lies Again (And Rumsfeld And The CIA), and WORLD EXCLUSIVE: New Revelations About The Torture Of Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi (June 2009). Also see the extensive archive of articles about the Military Commissions.

For other stories discussing the use of torture in secret prisons, see: An unreported story from Guantánamo: the tale of Sanad al-Kazimi (August 2007), Rendered to Egypt for torture, Mohammed Saad Iqbal Madni is released from Guantánamo (September 2008), A History of Music Torture in the “War on Terror” (December 2008), Seven Years of Torture: Binyam Mohamed Tells His Story (March 2009), and also see the extensive Binyam Mohamed archive. And for other stories discussing torture at Guantánamo and/or in “conventional” US prisons in Afghanistan, see: The testimony of Guantánamo detainee Omar Deghayes: includes allegations of previously unreported murders in the US prison at Bagram airbase (August 2007), Guantánamo Transcripts: “Ghost” Prisoners Speak After Five And A Half Years, And “9/11 hijacker” Recants His Tortured Confession (September 2007), The Trials of Omar Khadr, Guantánamo’s “child soldier” (November 2007), Former US interrogator Damien Corsetti recalls the torture of prisoners in Bagram and Abu Ghraib (December 2007), Guantánamo’s shambolic trials (February 2008), Torture allegations dog Guantánamo trials (March 2008), Sami al-Haj: the banned torture pictures of a journalist in Guantánamo (April 2008), Former Guantánamo Prosecutor Condemns “Chaotic” Trials in Case of Teenage Torture Victim (Lt. Col. Darrel Vandeveld on Mohamed Jawad, January 2009), Judge Orders Release of Guantánamo’s Forgotten Child (Mohammed El-Gharani, January 2009), Bush Era Ends With Guantánamo Trial Chief’s Torture Confession (Susan Crawford on Mohammed al-Qahtani, January 2009), Forgotten in Guantánamo: British Resident Shaker Aamer (March 2009), and the extensive archive of articles about the Military Commissions.

29 Responses

  1. Tom Paine says...

    Now that George Bush and Michael Hayden have publicly confessed to government waterboarding in a press conference on February 6, 2008, and in testimony before Congress on February 5, 2008, you may find the following information useful:

    The law review article referenced below (available at no cost at: http://www.law.utah.edu/_webfiles/ULRarticles/150/150.pdf ) makes clear that waterboarding is torture and is a crime and a war crime punishable under a number of treaties to which the United States is a party and several U.S. statutes.

    The article also explains that there is no defense available due to either (1) prior legal advice, or (2) circumstances (including, without limitation, terrorist acts – see citations in Footnotes 21 and 25 in the article), contrary to the claims of Bush and Hayden.

    The law review article (see pages 359 to 374) also establishes that under a number of treaties to which the United States is a party, the U.S. has an obligation to initiate an official investigation regarding confessed acts of torture. For example, the 1984 U.N. Convention Against Torture, (1465 UNTS 85), Article 12 reads as follows:

    “Each State Party shall ensure that its competent authorities proceed to a prompt and impartial investigation, wherever there is reasonable ground to believe that an act of torture has been committed in any territory under its jurisdiction.” (NOTE: The article also explains why “territory under its jurisdiction” includes GITMO and all DOD and CIA secret detention sites for the United States.)

    The following case, among others, has held that waterboarding is torture:

    In re Estate of Ferdinand E. Marcos Human Rights Litigation, 910 F. Supp. 1460, 1463 (District of Hawaii, 1995)

    Waterboarding is torture regardless of the surrounding circumstances – there is no circumstantial or necessity defense to torture claims.

    It is time for the appointment of a special prosecutor – General Mukasey must recuse himself because of his refusal to publicly state that waterboarding is criminal torture. As explained in the law review article and elsewhere, the following individuals played primary roles in the authorization of waterboarding and should be immediately identified as the primary subjects of the investigation:

    George W. Bush
    Richard “Dick” Cheney
    John Ashcroft
    Alberto Gonzales
    Donald Rumsfeld
    George J. Tenet
    John E. McLaughlin
    Porter Goss
    David Addington
    Jay S. Bybee
    John Yoo
    Jack Goldsmith
    General Ricardo Sanchez
    General Geoffrey Miller
    General Janis Karpinski

    Bush/Cheney Pardon Calendar

    Under the circumstances – a public confession of criminal acts by George W. Bush — you should expect that immediately after the November elections George W. Bush will pardon all of the people listed above, then resign. At that point, Richard “Dick” Cheney would become President, and you should expect that in that capacity Cheney will immediately pardon George W. Bush.

    Immediate Appointment of Special Prosecutor

    As a result of the expected pardons, a special prosecutor should be appointed immediately

    Commencement of Impeachment Proceedings

    As a result of the expected pardons, on the day after the November elections, the House of Representatives should impeach George W. Bush and Richard “Dick” Cheney for high crimes — torture — violating the following statutes, among others:

    18 USC 3231
    18 USC Sections 2340-2340A
    18 USC 2441

    Please note the strategic importance of simply presenting the impeachment to members of the House with no hearings and an immediate vote on the day after the November elections. There is no reason for hearings or delay, since George W. Bush has admitted the criminal act that is the basis of the impeachment.

    International Crimes Not Subject to Pardon Power

    It is worth pointing out that torture violations of the Law of War and international treaties are not subject to the Presidential pardon power. We will see these individuals on trial in the Hague for their publicly confessed war crimes.

    “Above the Law: Unlawful Executive Authorizations Regarding Detainee Treatment, Secret Renditions, Domestic Spying and Claims to Unchecked Executive Power,” Jordan J. Paust, Utah Law Review, 2007, Number 2, Pages 345 to 419

    Article available free at: http://www.law.utah.edu/_webfiles/ULRarticles/150/150.pdf

  2. True Blue Liberal » Waterboarding: Two Questions For Michael Hayden About Three “High-Value” Detainees Now In Guantánamo says...

    […] Read more Waterboarding […]

  3. Andy Worthington says...

    After this article was published, I received the following comment. I’ve been asked to post it anonymously.

    “Did I ever tell you my taste of routine from a USN Seal? I spent a short time in the reserves and had to go to boot camp. We had to either show we could swim or fake it across the width of a regulation swimming pool. To this day I cannot swim but I was doing my best to get across somehow. It was not going very well but I kept trying that day. Once before I managed to ‘fake it’ successfully, I had managed to get a couple of yards across when I felt my head being pushed under water. Of course I panicked and stood up (we were not on the deep end so that it was possible to touch the bottom of the pool). Our instructor (the swimming instructors are all Navy divers) yelled at me for not swimming across as required.

    “When I had finally managed to get through and training was over for the day, I had time to think about this in the barracks. Some years later I was doing research on Brazil and read the study on Torture in Brazil under the military. Suddenly 1+1 equaled 2. This guy was ready to hold my head under water because I did not swim. At the end of the day he would go home like all the other instructors. If he had met me in an interrogation room (as a petty officer with an elite MOS, not impossible), why should he hesitate to use water treatment. It scares the shit out of people. When I was three years old I was pushed into a swimming pool and could not swim. The certainly brief time before my mother jumped in to pull me out seemed like an eternity. I had nightmares for nearly fifteen years after.

    “What I am getting at is that the military is a torture machine which is like a motor idling until someone presses the accelerator. Everywhere there are people with varying degrees of skill and willingness to perform these tasks when someone pulls the throttle. All of these denials and qualifications from official and semi-official sources are just red herrings. If one starts talking about prohibiting torture in the military then one has to call the whole military training structure into question (e.g. the training of US Marines).”

  4. Secret Prison on Diego Garcia Confirmed: Six “High-Value” Guantánamo Prisoners Held, Plus “Ghost Prisoner” Mustafa Setmariam Nasar | freedetainees.org says...

    […] February 2008, Gen. Michael Hayden, the director of the CIA, admitted that Abu Zubaydah was one of three prisoners who had been subjected to waterboarding (an ancient […]

  5. Geoff Dodd says...

    Yes, they used ‘waterboarding’ to elicit fear responses. Now is there a conflict of laws with common sense? What if a red alert said a terror strike was imminent in Los Angeles or Dallas, TX for that matter? Do our laws prevent us from protecting our citizens? Do our laws conflict with our survival demands? These leaders took tough choices for us. Geoff D.

  6. Andy Worthington says...

    In response to Geoff:
    You’re talking about the “Ticking Time Bomb” scenario, but there has never been a situation in which a bomb was about to go off and a suspect was in custody, who, it was believed, had information about the bomb but was refusing to speak. The leaders’ “tough choices” were, therefore, based on a situation that did not arise, and may never arise. And as a result, they broke a number of laws and treaties designed to outlaw the use of torture under any circumstances. Those are crimes, not good leadership.

  7. Geoff Dodd says...

    Andy, ok they are crimes. Notice how the definitions of crime, rights, constitution, freedom, war, etc. all drastically change with anti-terrorism ‘rights’ of fascist, extreme right wing governments. They aren’t prepared to wait for a ticking time bomb and simply want to know more about the terrorists’ organizational structure and membership. But you’re correct… current law is for governments, too, to obey. 🙂

  8. The Last US Enemy Combatant - The Shocking Story of Ali al-Marri « Dandelion Salad says...

    […] was declared an “enemy combatant,” and subjected to the ancient torture technique known as waterboarding. During his tribunal at Guantánamo in March 2007, Mohammed stated that he had given false […]

  9. Seven Years Of Guantánamo, And A Call For Justice At Bagram | Dr Aafia Siddiqui - The Prisoner 650 says...

    […] lights, and exposing them to extreme temperatures.” In some circumstances, they also include waterboarding, a notorious torture technique, which involves controlled […]

  10. Wang says...

    Speaking of George W. Bush:

    George W. Bush is a raging racist.

    George W. Bush committed hate crimes of epic proportions and with the stench of terrorism (indicated in my blog).

    George W. Bush did in fact commit innumerable hate crimes.

    And I do solemnly swear by Almighty God that George W. Bush committed other hate crimes of epic proportions and with the stench of terrorism which I am not at liberty to mention.

    Many people know what Bush did.

    And many people will know what Bush did—even to the end of the world.

    Bush was absolute evil.

    Bush is now like a fugitive from justice.

    Bush is a psychological prisoner.

    Bush has a lot to worry about.

    Bush can technically be prosecuted for hate crimes at any time.

    In any case, Bush will go down in history in infamy.

    Respectfully Submitted by Andrew Yu-Jen Wang
    B.S., Summa Cum Laude, 1996
    Messiah College, Grantham, PA
    Lower Merion High School, Ardmore, PA, 1993

    (I can type 90 words per minute. In only 7 days, posts basically like this post of mine have come into existence—all over the Internet (hundreds of copies). One can go to Google USA right now, type “George W. Bush committed hate crimes of epic proportions and with the stench of terrorism,” hit “Enter,” and find more than 350 copies indicating the content of this post. All in all, there are probably more than 1,000 copies on the Internet indicating the content of this post—it has practically become headline news. One cannot be too dedicated when it comes to anti-Bush activities. As I looked back at my good computer work, I thought how fun and easy it was to do it.)

    I am not sure where I had read it before, but anyway, it goes kind of like this: “If only it were possible to ban invention that bottled up memories so they never got stale and faded.” Oh wait—off the top of my head—I think it came from my Lower Merion High School yearbook.

  11. Prosecuting the Bush Administration’s Torturers by Andy Worthington « Dandelion Salad says...

    […] drowning with a long and ignoble history  — but Gen. Michael Hayden, the director of the CIA, broke the silence last February, admitting, in an open session of Congress, that three “high-value detainees” in […]

  12. Guantánamo: The Definitive Prisoner List (Part 1) « Muslim in Suffer says...

    […] Chapter 12, also see Five Years in Guantánamo, Former Guantánamo detainees speak, Waterboarding: two questions for Michael Hayden about three “high-value” detainees now in Guant…, Guantánamo Suicide Report: Truth or Travesty? 062 RELEASED JUL 07 Al Juhani, Mohammed (Al Jihani) […]

  13. The Liberty Voice » Web-Only Content » Prosecuting the Bush Administration’s Torturers by Andy Worthington says...

    […] drowning with a long and ignoble history — but Gen. Michael Hayden, the director of the CIA, broke the silence last February, admitting, in an open session of Congress, that three “high-value detainees” in […]

  14. Who Authorized The Torture of Abu Zubaydah? « US and Their Allys War against muslims in the world, indicate of falling US and Zionist Empire,(Inshallah)!!! says...

    […] question has been overlooked is because, as the ICRC report reveals, Zubaydah was not subjected to waterboarding (an ancient torture technique that involves controlled drowning) until after the memo was issued, […]

  15. CIA Torture Began In Afghanistan Eight Months before Justice Department Approval by Andy Worthington « Dandelion Salad says...

    […] the Obama administration released the other memo — authorizing specific techniques, including waterboarding, an ancient torture technique that involves controlled drowning, to be used on a specific […]

  16. Dictatorial Powers Unchallenged As US “Enemy Combatant” Pleads Guilty by Andy Worthington « Dandelion Salad says...

    […] an “enemy combatant,” and who, we now know from the OLC’s torture memos, was subjected to waterboarding (an ancient torture technique that involves controlled drowning) 183 times in March […]

  17. Out Of Guantánamo: African Embassy Bombing Suspect To Be Tried In US Court by Andy Worthington « Dandelion Salad says...

    […] tortured (unlike Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Abu Zubaydah and Abdul Rahim al-Nashiri, whose torture by waterboarding was admitted by CIA director Michael Hayden), but during my research for my book The Guantánamo […]

  18. My Message To Obama: Great Speech, But No Military Commissions and No “Preventive Detention” by Andy Worthington « Dandelion Salad says...

    […] about loopholes in this policy that I explored here — and unreservedly refuted claims that waterboarding was either necessary or useful (a familiar refrain, but one particularly focused just now on Dick […]

  19. Mark Christian says...

    I LOVE WATERBOARDING!. Ask Nick Berg, Paul Johnston, Daniel Pearl, and PFC Lowell Tucker III , what they think of waterboarding? Oops.. you can’t.
    All were brutally beheaded by our racist, hateful, demonic enemies. Get a law degree and go after those guys.

  20. Guantánamo: Charge Or Release Prisoners, Say No To Indefinite Detention by Andy Worthington « Dandelion Salad says...

    […] this. Certainly, there is a problem with the case against al-Nashiri — one of three prisoners subjected to waterboarding, according to Gen. Michael Hayden, the former director of the CIA — although the problem is less […]

  21. Arrogance And Torture: A History of Guantánamo by Andy Worthington « Dandelion Salad says...

    […] but it was also revised so that the use of techniques previously regarded as torture, such as waterboarding (an ancient torture technique that involves controlled drowning), could be used on an a number of […]

  22. On Bush’s Waterboarding Claims, UK Media Loses Its Moral Compass « Dandelion Salad says...

    […] Senate Armed Services Committee in February 2008 (PDF, p. 31), after CIA director Gen. Mike Hayden first admitted that three prisoners had been waterboarded, that he believes waterboarding violates Common Article […]

  23. ‘Dead or alive’ The sorry history of George W. Bush and the hunt for Osama bin Laden : The Reid Report says...

    […] is later learned that Abu Zubaydah, along with a second tortured detainee, Ibn Shaikh al-Libi, are questioned about possible links (which did not exist) between al-Qaida and Saddam Hussein’s Iraq. Al Libi reportedly gives […]

  24. When Torture Kills: Ten Murders In US Prisons In Afghanistan by Andy Worthington « Dandelion Salad says...

    […] is that “torture” is something that was confined to a single tactic (waterboarding) and used only on three “high-value” detainees accused of being high-level al-Qaeda operatives. The reality is completely […]

  25. Michael Hayden: Torture’s PR Man « Antiwar.com Blog says...

    […] spying at his point that the likes of Dianne Feinstein opposed him — he loved him some controlled near-drowning of alleged […]

  26. The Faisalabad 16 | Lew Rockwell says...

    […] acknowledged in February this year, he was subjected to the ancient torture technique known as waterboarding, a form of controlled drowning. He was later transferred to other secret prisons – in Poland, […]

  27. Abd Al-Rahim Al-Nashiri: The torture victim the United States is desperate to gag — War in Context says...

    […] in February 2008, CIA director Michael Hayden admitted that al-Nashiri was one of three prisoners subjected to waterboarding, an ancient torture technique that involves controlled […]

  28. When Torture Kills: Ten Murders In US Prisons In Afghanistan by Andy Worthington – Dandelion Salad says...

    […] is that “torture” is something that was confined to a single tactic (waterboarding) and used only on three “high-value” detainees accused of being high-level al-Qaeda operatives. The reality is completely […]

  29. Release Of The “Holy Grail” Of Torture Reports Delayed Again by Andy Worthington – Dandelion Salad says...

    […] Project,” looking at how the Bush administration’s torture program was not just reserved for the waterboarding of three “high-value detainees” in the custody of the CIA, but was a poisonous virus that also infected the US military, and that […]

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Andy Worthington

Investigative journalist, author, campaigner, commentator and public speaker. Recognized as an authority on Guantánamo and the “war on terror.” Co-founder, Close Guantánamo and We Stand With Shaker. Also, photo-journalist (The State of London), and singer and songwriter (The Four Fathers).
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